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在互联网时代,出现了一个突出的变化,即“意见领袖的民主化”。甚至可以说,在网上,凡是持续提供信息和意见的个人都在某种程度上扮演着意见领袖的角色。进一步,我们还可以说,凡是有志于成为意见领袖的人,只要付出足够努力,就可能在网上成为意见领袖。

从当下中国的现实来看,互联网的出现,极大地拓展了言论空间,“意见领袖”不是一个个而是批量产生,特别是在微博上各显其能。人民网舆情监测室秘书长祝华新分析,网络名人的批量涌现,在一定程度上改变了过去由政府和官方媒体主导新闻宣传和社会舆论的格局。

微博,作为一种后起的信息传播工具,具有一些重要的特点,这些特点也影响到意见领袖的作用。

第一是快速化。

微博代表着互联网发展的新动向。传统媒体都有一个新闻周期的问题,比如报纸,新闻主要以日计算;比如电视,新闻主要以小时计算;而微博几乎不受新闻周期限制,属于即时网络。在瞬间,信息即可传递出来,传统媒体无法望其项背;同时,信息量的密集程度,传统媒体也无法与之比拟。

法国社会学家布尔迪厄在其电视研究著作《关于电视》中,曾经提出过“快思手”的概念,批评电视制造了一种“快速思维”。他认为,受收视率影响,也屈服于紧急性的压力,电视培养了一批“快思手”,他们以“固有的思想”进行论证,也正因为平庸普通,所以他们总和接受者轻易就达成了共识。

在微博上对时政问题发表意见时,为了适应微博的速度,意见领袖被迫成为“快思手”。并且,中国处于矛盾与冲突多发的社会转型期,各种事件如走马灯般应接不暇,因而存在一种强大的社会压力,驱使已负盛名的意见领袖不断对新的事态发展发表看法。由此,在微博的时间限制之内,意见领袖们能否真正深入思考,并说出一些有见地的见解,就成为一个真正的考验。

微博的第二个特点是碎片化。

以前的媒体传播信息是从中心到边缘,比如说某地发生突发事件,媒体派记者前去采访,然后刊登见报,众人传阅,网络转载,首发的媒体就是这个“中心”。但现在,很多突发事件的现场恰恰可能会有微博用户,他们可以即时传递信息,也许某个此前默默无闻、无足轻重的人,突然就成为信息的中心,产生瞬间最大影响力。这个人未见得可称之为意见领袖,但他或她的确能在彼时彼地发挥意见领袖的作用。

在突发性事件中,通常来说,公众还是更信任长期履行信息过滤、引导职能的“领袖”类人物,因为这类意见领袖有踪迹可循,有过往形成的公信力和美誉度,也有可见的专业资格。比如,如果发生了一起重大法律案件,那么,在微博上比较活跃的律师,因其责任感、正义感强,社会地位和专业程度较高,与媒体联系也比较密切,很容易成为该案件当中众望所归的意见领袖。

在事件过程中,意见领袖承担了“解码”的功能。意见领袖不仅仅传递事实,更重要的是,还要对事实加以评论和阐释,这时,微博的碎片化特性会对思维产生很大影响。在微博上传递的信息,来源比较广泛,内容时常杂乱无章,更有甚者,信息的真假也难以分辨,这些对意见领袖的信息加工能力、独到的观察与判断能力以及去伪存真的甄别能力都提出了极高的要求。可以说,一个不会“解码”的人不可能成为微博上的意见领袖。

微博的第三个特点是直接化。

直接化,顾名思义,就是消除了中介。在这里,“消除中介”的意思不是说意见领袖的信息中介作用消失了(“意见领袖”在很大程度上就是某种“意见经纪人”),而是说,微博上的意见领袖具有易接近的特点。换言之,他或她应该是“粉丝”能经常接触到的。这和布尔迪厄谈到的电视上的“快思手”还有所不同。观众可以在电视上看到专家侃侃而谈,但在现实中要想和专家发生直接接触则几乎不可能。现在,由于技术的发展、媒体的演化,易接近性已不再是问题。微博解除了“不在场”状态下主体间直接互动的诸多限制,使得追随者与意见领袖的“零距离对话”成为可能。

由于微博意见领袖与网民容易形成呼应,他们针对社会热点、公共事件发表言论时,其观点往往影响大批粉丝和舆论走向,甚至改变公共事件在现实中的走向。这极大地增强了意见领袖的号召力。然而,与此同时,随着意见领袖越来越从幕后走向台前,完全暴露于舆论“包围圈”之中,他们也必须做好足够的心理准备,迎接没有遮挡的挑战。

很多意见领袖对微博的直接化特性认识不足。他们可能由于此前追随者众而保持较高的心理位势,但在传播手段一再被颠覆的情况下,如果自诩为精英者还以传统方式进行形象管理,甚至意图作秀,他们可能会遭遇被先前的追随者从“佛龛”上直接掀翻在地的命运。意见领袖在微博时代不是牢不可破的,有些时候,崇拜者转眼间就可能成为激烈的反对者。

另一方面,由于粉丝的影响,人们又容易将自身群体的代言人神化,以致形成对此一代言人无所不能、永远正确的盲目迷信,甚至用语言暴力去攻击另外一些持不同意见的网民。还有人根据粉丝数量的多少来判断意见领袖的高下,忘记了真理本身与人多势众无关。


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